Top image - Durer - text below
Drawing frame The following extract is from Panofsky, E. Albecht Dürer, (Vol. One), 2nd ed. 1945 pp. 252,253 and is the source for most later explanations of these machines.
Two of these apparatuses [Left and Top] were already known to Alberti, Leonardo and Bramantino.
The eye of the observer is fixed by a sight, and between it and the object is inserted either a glass plate [Top woodcut] or a frame divided into small squares by a net of black thread ("graticola" or grill, as Alberti calls it). In the first case, an approximately correct picture can be obtained by simply copying the contours of the model as they appear on the glass plate and then transferring them to the panel or drawing sheet by means of tracing; in the second case the image perceived by the artist is divided into small units whose content can easily be entered upon a paper divided into a corresponding system of squares.


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